Irina Arkhipova 1925-2010

Irina Arkhipova fut une légendaire mezzo soprano, puis contralto, dans la grande tradition russe. Elle fut l’une des gloires du Bolchoï à époque soviétique.

Elle est née Irina Konstantinova Arkhipova le 2 décembre 1925 à Moscou. Son père, Konstantin Ivanovich Vetoshkin, était un ingénieur en construction de renom à Moscou. Sa mère, Evdokia Efimovna, a chanté dans une chorale d’église. La jeune Arkhipova aimait la musique. Elle étudia le piano avec Olga Gnesina à l’Institut Gnesin.

Olga Gnesina. Elle enseigna
à l’Institut Gnessin fondé
par ses soeurs
Elena, Evguenia et Maria

Pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, sa famille put s’échapper de justesse devant l’avancée des armées allemandes et elle fut évacuée pendant 4 ans à Tachkent. Là, Irina a suivi une formation d’architecte tout en prenant des cours de chant. En 1945, de retour à Moscou, elle reprit ses études. En 1951, elle fit ses débuts en chantant des romances russes traditionnelles à la radio de Moscou. Dans le même temps, elle proposa des plans architecturaux pour l’Université et l’Institut des finances de Moscou qui furent approuvés par les autorités et réalisés avec succès, lui ouvrant les perspectives d’une brillante carrière d’architecte.

Mais c’est la musique qui allait être sa vocation. Elle entra à 28 ans au Conservatoire de Moscou, où elle étudia avec le baryton Leonid Savranski (1876-1966). 

Leonid Savranski fut soliste du Bolchoï de 1912 à 1946. À partir de 1946, il donna des cours de chant à l’académie militaire Frounzé de Moscou, et de 1948 à 1954 au conservatoire de Moscou. Il fut élevé au rang de professeur en 1952. Il donna ensuite des cours particuliers. Il compta Irina Arkhipova parmi ses élèves .
Irina Arkhipova dans Carmen

Elle obtint son premier engagement professionnel avec l’opéra d’Ekaterinbourg (alors Sverdlovsk) de 1954 à 1956. En 1955, elle remporta un concours international de chant à Varsovie qui lui ouvrit les portes du prestigieux théâtre Bolchoï de Moscou. Elle y fit ses débuts en 1956 dans le rôle de Carmen. Pendant les deux décennies suivantes, Arkhipova régna en maître sur le répertoire mezzo du Bolchoï, tant en raison de sa polyvalence et de son intelligence que de ses qualités vocales exceptionnelles. Parmi ses rôles figuraient Azucena (Il trovatore), Marina (Boris Godunov), Marfa (Khovanshchina), Amneris (Aida), Eboli (Don Carlo), Charlotte (Werther), Lyubasha (The Tsar’s Bride), Pauline (The Queen of Spades), Lyubov (Mazeppa), Helen (la première du Bolchoï de Guerre et paix de Sergei Prokofiev), ainsi que des rôles dans des premières comme (L’histoire d’un homme réel) de Prokofiev et (Tikhon Khrennikov) de Rodion Schedrin.

Elle devont membre du Parti communiste de l’Union soviétique en 1963 et fut nommée Artiste du peuple de l’URSS en 1966. En sa qualité d”Artiste du peuple, Irina Arkhipova jouissait de certains privilèges, dont celui de pouvoir, plus facilement que d’autres, chanter à l’étranger et donner des concerts en dehors de ses obligations au Bolchoï. Elle se fera entendre, hors de l’URSS, dans le cadre de tournées officielles de l’Opéra moscovite, mais aussi en tant que soliste invitée.

En Juin 1959, fut organisée une tournée en URSS du ténor Mario Del Monaco. Le ténor participa à une représentation mémorable de Carmen, au Bolchoï, avec Arkhipova dans le rôle titre. Il existe une vidéo de ce spectacle où l’on peut voir dans la scène finale un extraordinaire Mario Del Monaco halluciné, plus vrai que nature. Son arrivée dans l’Union soviétique était un événement incroyable à l’époque. Ce duo avec une star mondiale fut le point culminant dans la carrière de Irina Arkhipova la fit accéder à une énorme popularité dans le monde entier. TV et performances radio en Europe ont contribué à la reconnaissance instantanée du talent de la reine russe de l’Opéra.

Irina Arkhipova

Elle fit sa première apparition en Occident au cours de la saison 1960-61 dans le rôle de Carmen au Teatro San Carlo de Naples et à l’Opéra de Rome. En 1963, elle fit une tournée sensationnelle à travers le Japon. Ses débuts à La Scala de Milan, suivirent en 1964 avec les rôles de Helen, Marina et Pauline. En 1967, elle y revint pour chanter Marfa et Marina, cette fois aux côtés de castings italiens, et encore en 1971 (Marfa) et 1973 (Marina). La tournée de la compagnie du Bolchoï à Paris en 1969 fut l’occasion de la voir à l’Opéra de Paris. En 1972, elle fit ses débuts aux États-Unis, à San Francisco, en tant qu’Amneris (Aida), et la même année, elle chanta Azucena (Le Trouvère) à Orange County. Sa réception à Covent Garden en 1975, également dans le rôle d’Azucena, fut tout aussi enthousiaste. Alan Blyth a écrit: «Dans d’innombrables phrases … elle a transpercé sous la surface d’une performance étoilée ce que Verdi et la musique signifient vraiment.» À l’été 1963, Irina Arkhipova est allée au Japon, où elle donna 14 concerts dans de nombreuses villes du pays. En 1964, elle se produisit sur la scène de La Scala dans Boris Godunov (Marina Mnishek), Guerre et Paix (Parti Elen Bezuhovoy), La Dame de pique (Pauline). En 1992, elle fit des débuts tardifs au Metropolitan Opera de New-York avec la compagnie du Kirov Opera dans le rôle de la vieille comtesse de La Dame de Pique. A New-York, elle rencontra le pianiste John Vustmanom avec qui elle enregistra des œuvres de Rachmaninov et Moussorgski

Au cours de ses 40 ans de carrière, Arkhipova a chanté plus de 40 rôles d’opéra différents. Elle a enregistré plus de vingt opéras et a également réalisé plusieurs albums solo, qui se sont vendus à des millions d’exemplaires. A propos de l’un de ses disques, le critique J. B. Steane a commenté: «Sa voix résonne forte et claire, sans divisions de registre et en toute liberté contre les constrictions gutturales … un son glorieusement sain.» Il la considérait comme la meilleure chanteuse russe des années 1960.

Contrairement à Galina Vichnievskaïa, soprano vedette du Bolchoï et épouse du violoncelliste Mstislav Rostropovitch, avec qui elle a souvent partagé le haut de l’affiche, elle ne contestera pas le régime soviétique et restera une artiste “officielle” du Bolchoï. Au point que sa consoeur, contrainte à l’exil pour avoir soutenu avec son époux des contestataires du régime, l’accusera dans ses Mémoires d’être une «collabo» protégée du pouvoir communiste.

Irina Arkhipova

En France, elle a été invitée à donner un récital dans le cadre d’une émission de télévision, diffusée en février 1974, sur la 2ème Chaîne. On la reverra, en 1992, au Théâtre du Châtelet, quand Semyon Bychkov, alors directeur de l’Orchestre de Paris, la dirigea dans Eugène Onéguine, version disponible sur disque compact (Philips). Irina Arkhipova a enregistré une version de référence de La Khovanchtchina, sous la direction de Boris Khaïkine (version de 1972, Melodya). En 1992, elle participait à la version signée par Valéry Gergiev (Philips) de La Dame de Pique, incarnant le rôle de la vieille comtesse (un rôle court mais d’une grande importance dans l’opéra, incarné traditionnellement par des chanteuses en fin de carrière) avec une voix encore très en place, même si elle n’évoquait plus que partiellement les feux d’un registre et d’un timbre loués pour sa puissance vocale et expressive.

Irina Arkhipova reçevant l’Ordre de Saint-André des mains du président Poutine

Elle fut désignée actrice honorable de Russie et actrice populaire de l’URSS, et a également reçu de nombreux prix et décorations de l’État soviétique et du gouvernement russe. Une petite planète N°4424 fut nommée Arkhipova en son honneur. Elle participa à divers projets culturels en Russie et à l’étranger. Elle a chanté pour des dignitaires et des politiciens, tels que Nikita Khrouchtchev, Leonid Brejnev, la reine Elizabeth II, Mikhaïl Gorbatchev, le pape Jean-Paul II et d’autres personnalités internationales. Arkhipova a été présidente du Concours international Tchaïkovsky pendant 30 ans. De plus, elle a été membre du jury de concours internationaux à Athènes (Maria Callas), Barcelone (Francisco Viñas), Munich, Sofia, New-York (Rosa Ponselle), Tokyo (Minon), Bruxelles (Reine Elizabeth), Bussetto (Voci Verdiane ), Trévise (Mario Del Monaco) et Cardiff (BBC).

Arkhipova âgée

Pendant 40 ans, elle a été professeur au Conservatoire de Moscou et nombre de ses étudiants sont devenus lauréats de concours internationaux et se sont produit dans les opéras du monde entier. Elle a été vice-présidente de l’Académie des arts créatifs et présidente de l’Union internationale des musiciens et de la Fondation Irina Arkhipova à Moscou.

Irina Arkhipova a écrit trois livres: «My Muzes» (1992), «Music of My Life» (1997) et «I am the brand» (2005).

Irina Arkhipova dans divers rôles
La tombe d’Irina Arkhipova
au cimetière Novodievitchi
à Moscou

Elle se maria deux fois; tout d’abord avec  Evgeny Arkhipov avec qui elle eut un fils, Andrew. Ils divorcèrent et elle se remaria avec le ténor Vladislav Piavko avec lequel elle vécut plus de 40 ans. Vladislav Piavko et Irina Arkhipova avaient une différence d’âge de seize années. Ils n’eurent pas d’enfant ensemble, Vladislav étant déjà le père de quatre enfants. 

Elle est décédée d’une insuffisance cardiaque le 11 février 2010, à l’âge de 84 ans, et a été enterrée à côté de sommités de la culture russe au cimetière Novodievitchi à Moscou.

Irina Arkhipova

La voix d’Arkhipova était celle d’une mezzo-soprano pleine et riche avec beaucoup de puissance et d’intensité même dans les parties les plus sombres du contralto. Elle n’a pas perdu de qualité en se déplaçant vers les registres les plus graves (contralto). Elle a compris quelles étaient ses forces vocales et n’a pas essayé d’aller au-delà de son meilleur répertoire. Une voix franche et puissante, richement timbrée, à l’aigu insolent, au grave parfaitement assuré, jointe à une présence altière et rayonnante, en fit une des cantatrices majeures de son temps.» (Michel Parouty). Son héritage enregistré est vaste mais une grande partie n’est disponible qu’en Russie. 

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